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Determination of nicotine in mushrooms by various GC/MS- and LC/MS-based methods

A. Lozano, M. A. Martínez-Uroz, M. J. Gómez-Ramos, M. M. Gómez-Ramos, M. Mezcua & A. R. Fernández-Alba

2012, Anal Bioanal Chem 402, pp: 935-943


Due to the basic properties of nicotine, it is not easily integrated into commonly used multiresidue methods.
The present work investigates the application of two commonly employed multiresidue methods - the QuEChERS method and the ethyl acetate method - for determining nicotine in mushrooms.

Both methods are employed in a modified form and an unmodified form: the former to address the special properties of nicotine and the latter, combined with the use of isotopically labelled nicotine, to compensate for poor recoveries.

The QuEChERS-based methods were followed by liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry and those based on ethylacetate extraction were followed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry. All methods were validated according to European guidelines (document no.SANCO/10684/2009). Recovery studies performed onmushroom spiked at 10 and 100 μg kg−1 yielded average recoveries in the range 80-110% with relative standard deviation (RSD) values below 9%. The linearity of the response over two orders of magnitude was demonstrated (r2>0.995) for all of the determination techniques employed. The limits of detection and quantification obtained were in the 0.7 and 10 μg kg−1 range, depending on the technique, and thus below the maximum residue level established for this toxic alkaloid by current EU legislation. Good repeatability and reproducibility were obtained in terms of the RSD of the analytical methods (0.4-13.2%). The modified QuEChERS method was tested in a proficiency test on nicotine in dried mushrooms obtaining good results. The methods were successfully applied to 20 real samples.

© Springer-Verlag 2011. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords

Nicotine in mushrooms . Liquid chromatography . Gas chromatography . QuEChERS . Ethyl acetate method .Validation


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Published 15-12-2011, 12:41:20

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