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Feed samples analysed by U.S. Food and Drug Administration


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA, samples and analyses domestic and imported animal feeds for pesticide residues. Monitoring focuses on feeds for livestock and poultry - animals that ultimately become or produce food for human consumption. The data presented here are from 2006 and 2007.

The Environmental Protection Agency, EPA, determines the safety and effectiveness of the chemicals and establishes tolerance levels and regulatory guidance for residues on feed crops, as well as for raw and processed foods. These tolerance levels (the amount of pesticide allowed to be present in a food product) are normally set 100 times below the level that might cause harm to people or the environment. In the following the exceedings of regulatory guidance found by the FDA have been cross-checked with MRLs in the EU pesticide database.

In 2007, 292 feed samples (196 domestic and 96 imported) were analysed for pesticides by the FDA (Table 3 10). Of the 196 domestic samples, 145 samples (74%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 44 samples (22%) contained one or more detectable residues that did not exceed regulatory guidance, and seven (3.6%) contained a residue which exceeded regulatory guidance. Of the 96 imported samples, 78 (81%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 18 (19%) contained one or more detectable residues that did not exceed regulatory guidance, and no samples contained a residue which exceeded regulatory guidance.

The seven domestic samples of animal feed with residues that exceeded regulatory guidance were three grain and four plant by-products. Two corn samples from Ohio contained 0.110 and 0.143 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos, respectively. These levels exceed the 0.05 mg/kg tolerance for chlorpyrifos on field corn (the EU-MRL for chlorpyrifos in corn is also 0.05 mg/kg). One corn sample from Missouri contained 0.030 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos-methyl. No tolerances have been established by the EPA for chlorpyrifos-methyl on corn. (This sample would not have exceeded the EU MRL for chlorpyrifos-methyl in corn, which is 3 mg/kg).

Table 3.10. Summary of the 196 domestic surveillance and 96 import samples of animal feed that were analyzed for Pesticides by FDA in 2007.
Type of FeedNumber of Samples analysedSamples with No Pesticide Residues%Samples Exceeding Regulatory Guidance%
Whole/Ground Grains115998632,6
Plant By-products80577145
Mixed Feed Rations59345800
Supplements/Misc.19179000
Hay & Hay Products13107700
Animal By-products6610000
TOTALS2922237672,4

Two samples, a soy hull pellet and a canola meal, contained 0.037 mg/kg and 0.066 mg/kg of tris (chloropropyl) phosphate, respectively. No tolerances, action levels, or guidance have been established by the EPA or the FDA (or by the EU) for this fire-retardant in animal feed, so any quantifiable level is considered to have exceeded regulatory guidance. One sample of cotton burrs from Texas contained 14.8 mg/kg of malathion. This level exceeds the 2 mg/kg tolerance for malathion on delinted cotton seed. The EU MRL for malathion in cotton seed is 0.02 mg/kg. One sample of peanut hulls from Texas contained 0.058 mg/kg of DEF (tribuphos). No tolerances have been established by the EPA for DEF on peanut hulls (or by the EU).
In the 51 domestic and 18 import samples of animal feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 90 quantifiable residues. Malathion and ethoxyquin were the most frequently found and accounted for 55% of all residues detected. Table 3 11 shows the number of quantifiable levels for each pesticide and the concentration range.

Table 3.11. Summary of the pesticides in 51 domestic surveillance and 18 import samples of animal feed, that contained one or more detectable residues in 2007.
PesticideQuantifiable LevelsRange
(mg/kg)
Median
(mg/kg)
Malathion320,011-14,80,111
Ethoxyquin200,068-29,80,571
Chlorpyrifos-methyl60,011-0,1750,028
DDE + TDE + DDT60,002-0,0460,014
DEF60,056-1,820,253
Chlorpyrifos30,018-0,1430,11
Chlorpropham20,070-0,073 
Fenpropathrin20,210-0,600 
Myclobutanil20,047-1,20 
Quinoxyfen20,077-0,330 
Tris (chloropropyl) phosphate20,037-0,066 
Azoxystrobin10,08 
All others60,025-2,100,134

 

In 2006, 335 feed samples (264 domestic and 71 imports) were analysed for pesticides by the FDA. Of the 264 domestic samples, 196 (74%) contained no detectable pesticide residues, 66 (25%) contained residues at levels not exceeding regulatory guidance, and two (0.8%) contained residues which exceeded regulatory guidance. Of the 71 import samples none contained a residue which exceeded regulatory guidance. The two residues that exceeded regulatory guidance were a vitamin premix sample from Canada that contained 82.070 mg/kg of ethoxyquin, and a sample of tallow collected by the Chicago District Office which contained 0.069 mg/kg of o-phenylphenol.

In the 68 domestic and three import samples of animal feed in which one or more pesticides were detected, there were 99 pesticide residues. Malathion and ethoxyquin were the most frequently found and accounted for 60.6% of all residues detected.

 

Published 13-07-2010, 15:59:47

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